How do people resolve the ambivalent feelings they have about members of other groups? What mental maneuvers do people use to shield themselves from threats to their self-concepts? How do people deal with having violated their moral and other behavioral standards? At the broadest level, my research focuses on the motivational aspects of social cognition. More specific interests include attitudinal ambivalence, social stigma, defensive and self-protective processes in judgment and memory, and the social psychology of genocide and mass killing.