Syracuse University today announced that Kathleen Walters ’73, a distinguished member of the international business community, has been selected to lead Syracuse University’s Board of Trustees, succeeding current Board Chair Steve W. Barnes ’82, whose term ends in May 2019….
Transcript of “The Rise of Democracy in the Middle East” Panel (PDF)
ROUGH DRAFT NOT VERBATIM >> Please welcome to the stage, the voices of Afghanistan. [ Applause ] [ Applause ] >> Thank you, everyone. On behalf of voices of Afghanistan I would like to thank Sam Nappi and also university of Syracuse and it is a pleasure to be here tonight and thank you very much. >> LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, HE IS THE DEAN'S PROFESSOR OF HUMANITIES, FOUNDING DIRECTOR OF THE SYRACUSE HUMANITIES CENTER, AND PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR OF THE CENTRAL NEW YORK HUMANITIES CORRIDOR. PLEASE WELCOME PROFESSOR GREGG LAMBERT. [ Applause ] >> THANK YOU EVERYONE, AND GOOD MORNING TO YOU, AS WELL AS TO THOSE WHO ARE JOINING US FROM AROUND THE WORLD THROUGH THE LIVE STREAMING OF THIS EVENT. IT'S MY PLEASURE TO WELCOME YOU HERE TODAY FOR THIS IMPORTANT DISCUSSION ABOUT FINDING COMMON GROUND FOR PEACE. SINCE 2009, ONE OF THE HUMANITIES CENTER'S PROGRAMS IS THE PERPETUAL PEACE PROJECT, WHICH ENGAGES PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD IN CONVERSATIONS And events, how we are so Globally INTERDEPENDENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY-CAN DISCOVER A WAY TO LIVE WITHOUT THE CONSTANT THREAT OF WAR. THE GOALS FOR THE PROJECT ARE QUITE SIMPLE. TO CHANGE PEOPLE'S MINDS AND GET THEM TO TAKE THE IDEA OF A PEACEFUL WORLD SERIOUSLY. TWO, TO START TO IMAGINE WHAT IT WOULD BE LIKE TO LIVE IN A SOCIETY WHERE DIFFERENCES ARE SETTLED BY DIPLOMACY AND DIALOGUE INSTEAD OF DRONES AND DEVASTATION. WE ARE HONORED TO HAVE WITH US TODAY HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA, THE EMBODIMENT OF THIS VISION WHOSE STRENGTH IS IN FINDING A MORE HUMANE WAY TO ADDRESS PROBLEMS. MANY THANKS TO THE VENERABLE LAMA TENZIN DHONDEN, PERSONAL PEACE EMISSARY FOR HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA, FOR HIS ASSISTANCE. AND TO SU TRUSTEE SAM NAPPI, ex-Tisch producer for common ground and the driving force behind this historic event. TO GET THE CONVERSATION UNDERWAY, PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING THE MODERATOR FOR THIS MORNING'S DISCUSSION, NBC NEWS NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT/ANCHOR AND TODAY ANCHOR AT LARGE, ANN CURRY. [ Applause ] Good morning, everyone. How lucky are we today. We want to say thank you to Gregg, thank you to lama Tenzin, Sam Nappi and thank you, Syracuse University. [ Applause ] This morning as you just heard, we're going to take a look at what it takes to find peace and we do it in a time of war. You are yet another generation that has had to learn two too young about war. You have had to consider Afghanistan, and Iraq. And now new multiple flash points all over the Middle East. That are raising new hopes for democracy, but at the same time, are giving rise to terrible violence. And in the case of what began as an Arab spring revolution in Syria, now as we speak, there are accusations even of possible crimes against humanity. Today his holiness, and a distinguished panel of experts aim to make sense of what is happening in our world. And to give us the other side of the story. The side of peace. We ask today where and how can our humanity find common ground. First, I introduce our panel. They are, Nobel peace laureateite. She's Iranian human rights laureate who has been arrested more than once, for defending the human rights of political DISSIDENTs. Police welcome, PLEASE WELCOME SHIRIN EBADI. [ Applause ] Doctor is joined by professor who will act as a her translator. DR. EBADI IS JOINED ON STAGE THIS MORNING BY PROFESSOR MEHRZAD BOROUJERDI, A POLITICAL SCIENCE PROFESSOR AT THE MAXWELL SCHOOL, WHO WILL ACT AS TRANSLATOR FOR DR. EBADI. A NOBEL LAUREATE who once directed the international atomic energy agency and an important factor in the spring revolution in the Egypt. Please welcome, Mohamed ElBaradei. It is a pleasure to have you here. Welcome. We also have a former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, who worked alongside Dr. Martin Luther king jr. against racial segregation. He's been awarded with the presidential medal of freedom. Please welcome Andrew young. What an honor to be on the stage with you. [ Applause ] And also, joining us this morning, the founder of the moral courage project at nyu which strives to show that all of us have the capacity to speak up, despite fear, of intimidation. PLEASE WELCOME IRSHAD MANJI.Come around the front. And also, joining us this morning, a former head of the central intelligence agency. He's a foreign policy specialist, please welcome, R. James Woolsey. Jr. Please be seated. As we now introduce you to the 11th Chancellor and President of Syracuse University, and distinguished professor of psychology and women's studies in the college of the arts and sciences, to make the biggest INTRODUCTION I think all of us on the stage will agree, please welcome, Khan Chancellor Nancy Cantor. Chancellor Nancy Cantor. >> Good morning. >> Good morning. First on behalf of the Syracuse University community, I want to thank each of our distinguished pan people inists and our moderator Ann Curry for joining us today. The wisdom each of you has shared with us this morning on these complex and complicated issues and evens, informed by your singular experiences and diverse perspectives, has enlightened us all. I want to extend a very special thank you to our S.U. trustee Sam Nappi and world harmony productions for making all of this possible, and to the venerable lama Tenzin Dhonden personal peace emissary for his Holiness. For this is, truly, an extraordinary moment in the life of Syracuse University. We are deeply honored and humbled to welcome his Holiness, the Dalai Lama here and we look forward to his leading us in this transformative opportunity to explore individually and collectively the urgent and so vexing challenge of building a more peaceful and just world. How wonderfully appropriate that such an expansive and impactful conversation take place on a university campus, where students, educators and citizens can join in the dialogue. We come to this dialogue from homes and with experiences from all over, near and far, to engage each other and bring our diverse perspectives to bear on what it means to be socially responsible Global citizens. All of us are constantly being educated for the world, in the world, preparing to help meet the pressing challenges of the day, challenges that can so clearly divide us in conflict or unite us in the richness of harmonious difference. Our university and indeed the Syracuse community at large, is strongly committed to partnerships in our region, that build unity around the issues of educational, social and economic opportunity and the intergroup dialogue that can work across difference, on the ground, in our multi-cultural and interfaith community. Our work in this arena provides a base for thinking more broadly, in a Global context. Indeed, as we strive to be one world, and find a common ground, we need to recognize the intricacies of history, geography, and culture as laid down in one place, and yet also find the deep resonances that can connect us. Who better than universities as stewards of the next generation of Global citizens to take on these great questions and challenges? Indeed 33 years ago tomorrow, October 9, 1979, His Holiness the Dalai Lama visited our campus to speak in Hendricks chapel. It's been more than three decades since but as the topic of this morning's symposium indicates, we continue to struggle here and everywhere with ways to find and sustain peace and justice, as we did then. And today, while we are light years ahead in terms of technological advancements, and in that sense interconnected, and our world is more interconnected than ever, we remain more disconnected than ever on a human left, in advancing the tools, and the will, for coming together. As his Holiness the Dalai Lama stated during his 1979 visit here, the problems created by humankind can only be solved through "full-fledged compassion, genuine sympathetic cooperation, and human understanding." And this is a message that he has shared worldwide in dialogues with Presidents, Prime Ministers and crowned rulers, leading scientists and religious figures, and in presentations before public audiences such as this. His Holiness was designated the 14th Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibet, at the age of 2, although he prefers to view himself, in his words, as a "simple Buddist monk." But for millions worldwide, he embodies a transformative message of peace, compassion, tolerance, and understanding. Since 1959, he has earned many awards and accolades, including the Nobel Peace prize in 1989 in recognition of his non-violent struggle for freedom in Tibet. The Nobel committee cited His Holiness's advocacy of "peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect" and for his "forward-looking proposals for the solution of international conflicts, human rights issues, and Global environmental problems." We are truly honored and privileged to have this unique opportunity to amplify his message of peace, not only across our campus, city and region, but in the hearts and minds of all who hear him. Please join me in giving a warm and deep appreciative Syracuse welcome to our esteemed guest, His Holiness the Dalai Lama. >> You sit here. [ Laughter ] >> Yes, you get the big chair your holiness. >> Thank you. >> >> Now holiness if I might ask one question of you before we ask questions of the panel, to set the tone for this discussion, what is the single-most important human trait that is required to find of common ground for peace? >> >> I think very simple: If you ask young children, I think they could, when they mix with other children, they don't care about their social background, or religious faith. Or their family rich or poor or. So long children smile, play together. So that is very, very clear spirit. Oneness of human being. I believe that. So entire 7 billion human beings, the way we are born, the way we die, the way we carry daily life, sleep, dream, meal, 7 billion, the same, I believe. So I tell people, sharing people, we are the same. Difference of profession difference of experiences but we actually are the same human beings. Emotionally, mentally, even physically. Basically we are the same. So think more about that, hardly, nothing to divide. We all same human beings. So this is my fundamental belief so where I go, I always share concept, oneness of humanity. So that I believe. >> Thank you, your holiness. On this, in this beginning then, this idea that the human trait is an awareness that we are the same, that we have so much in common, which is how I understand his holiness answered that question, I don't mean to pressure the rest of you but His Holiness has said that he's come here to learn from you. [ Laughter ] Some on that note, let us begin to think about and talk about what is happening to our world as we speak. And specifically, get a sense about what's happening in the Middle East. Perhaps the first spark for what we now call Arab spring happened not in the Arab world but in Persia during the green revolution in Iran. And so let us begin with Shirin Ebadi and ask you, Shirin, how you see these revolutions and what is -- where is this ingredient that His Holiness is suggesting that is required which is for people to see each other as themselves, to see each other in the same way as they see themselves? Shirin? >> >> What can cause everlasting peace in a society is social justice and democracy. In the absence of these two key elements, what remains in a society is really representation and suffocation and not genuine serious peace. Which can be disrupted at any given moment. This is what we witness in the set of insurrections in the Arab world in the western media is referred to as the Arab spring. In the absence of social justice and democracy, we saw that people all across the Arab worlds rose up in their rebellion against existing status quo. They managed to kick out the dictators ... but this is not sufficient. Because the departure of a dictator not synonymous with democracy. As we witness in Iran in 1979, the Shah as a dictator was forced out, but the system was replaced by a worse dictator in his place. As such I'm not in agreement with the concept of Arab spring. I think it is too early to call it in a spring yet. Dictators have departed but we still have to wait and see whether democracy comes along. Perhaps the best indicator of democracy is the status of women in the Arab world. And when the time comes, with the Arab Muslim women have gained equal rights, then we can talk of Arab spring. Fortunately people are struggling for that day to arrive. And I'm sure they will win. >> Thank you. [ Applause ] Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei you have a very perspective on this subject because you were in Egypt, had a sense about what was happening, in the removal of President mubarak there in one of the biggest moments of what is called Arab spring. What would you like to add to this conversation? >> >> Well, think what's happening in the Arab world is, a wonderful human effort emancipate themselves. It goes very well with His Holiness common sense approach to humanity that we are all the same irrespective of color, religion, you know. What have you. This is -- it's vindication that irrespective of where we come from every human being is seeking dignity, is seeking fairness is seeking justice. And we learned that intuitively as young children. And this is what's happening. I mean, in Egypt, it is again, it is a human awakening. Against injustice, against representation, and in a way, it is emancipation from modern-day slavery, you know. It is no different from the mar in which Washington, it is no different from the March in India. People would like to be free to have human dignity to have equality, and to have justice. This is, of course, a -- so there is no going back. It was not a question of whether it is going to happen, it was a question of when it is going to happen. And of course it is still very much work in progress, we still have a lot to do. We still have to manage that, and I'll come to that later on. Manage the anger that is coming after many, many decades repression and we do not know democracy, we did not practice democracy to build a framework, people dialogue and understand the shared humanities and how to work together didn't this is the only way for a win/win situation. That's a lot of work in progress but we crossed a threshold and that is in itself a major reason for optimism. >> Is the fact that the Arab spring, I'm going to ask all follow-up question, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, that the Arab spring is happening in countries that do not have a history of democracy. Did that contribute to the violent nature of some of these revolutions? >> Well, I think there's, the violence could be explained that of many decades of anger, you know, anger from the outside world, that has been supporting the dictators. They felt that they were let down. Anger by the domestic tormenters who have been treating them like in a marginalized way, completely do not have the basic needs. So the anger is a natural phenomenon. People now got their freedom, but they do not know how to yet to manage the anger or freedom. And it is our responsibility now as a Global community, to hug this Arab spring, people who are yearning for freedom and see what we need to do to make sure that we go back to a non-violent change, and not -- and to understand that violent is not the way to go forward. There was, of course, the violent in Egypt was, there was not a violent revolution, that was very peaceful revolution. Indonesia, the same. Libya and Syria there was a resistant by the authoritarian system and that's what we're seeing today. >> Technology. Gosh. Always drives me crazy. Love the ipod, love the ipad, love the ear piece and they drive me crazy. Please continue. >> There say lot of responsibility to manage, manage the process. I mean, if you look what's happening in Syria, it is a shameful, you know, that the community keeps wringing its hands while people are dying. When you saw what happened in Libya we were too late to intervene. We cannot just continue to say, we are one human family, while we in our practice, we don't really care for each other and I can give you a lot of examples ranging from the Congo to Darfur. It is only when we have our geopolitical interests involved that we get in and out simply on the basis of human and the fact that we are one human family. And that simple as it is, we do not practice yet, and that's why we are here today, to see how we can make people understand that we are all going to lose until we are, we understand that we are answering in the affirmative, the old bible question: Am I my brother's keeper? And until we answer that question, affirmatively, we are doomed, and moving into self destruct. [ Applause ] >> Andrew young, you understand a great deal about being your brother's keeper. Having Marched with Martin Luther King jr., very fought all of your rights for human rights and dignity for all, when you see what's happening in the Arab spring and you hear what Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei and Dr. Ebadi just said having been a force non-violence in creating social change? >> , let me say that, listening to His Holiness, I see two things: One, I see the simple right to be a man. And I relate the Arab spring directly back to Memphis and Martin Luther King. And being a man was not just about the right to vote, it was about a job with respect. In Tunisia, it was a simple man with a cart. Who wanted to get permission to sell his wears, and you kept getting the reason around from the government, and so in despair, and in protest, he set himself on fire. And this was, I think, historically the start of the difficulty. Now, that was a quest and a protest that was basically for economic rights. And I would say about Egypt, Egypt was a good economy, for 30 million people. But they had 80 million in the population. So 50 million were left out of the economy. And so, it was this 50 million saying, no, we have to be a part, not of the right to vote, but we have to have the right to water, to food, to health. , now, that's one part of the Arab spring. There's another part that I think others will have a chance to criticize me on, but, I think that it was taken advantage of by certain forces to produce regime change. And that's when it began to get violent. It got violent, I don't know, not from inside, but from outside. And we didn't have -- we were able to make peace with Russia, with China, with almost all of our enemies, in South Africa, we had transformation completely, and all done non-violently by people. In this country, our movements have been non-violent. And if we keep them non-violent, I think that we can make progress, but you can't have a non-violent movement that is determined to have regime change immediately. That these two things have to go in parallel. >> Thank you. [ Applause ] Because of the tone of what we just heard from Andrew young, professor Irshad Manji, I'll skip over and go to you James Woolsey and ask you about this idea, this idea that there are in place not all but many these Arab spring nations there are proxy wars going on. That there are others from the outside fostering violence on the inside. What is the responsibility of the world and are you hopeful in any way based on your experience as the former head of the C.I.A., that the world would begin to listen to the cause of peace, when it has so many other interests at play that cause war? >> As was supposedly said when asked by Henry Kissinger what the result really of the French revolution had been, he supposedly said I don't know, it is much too soon to tell. [ Laughter ] And that's the case. I think with the Arab spring. The problem is that like dramas, revolutions often have three acts: And act 1 is the storming of the bastille in the French revolution, winter palace in Russian revolution, kicking the Shah out in the Iranian revolution, and act one is optimistic, is hopeful, often young people in the streets, overthrowing a symbol of oppression and despotism. Then act two follows very closely with act one, and has a similar spirit. Act two is the creation or attempted creation of rule by the people, with fairness, and, and justice. And that looked like it might be occurring in the French revolution for a year or two with the tennis court oath and so on. LaFayette presented the key to the bastille to Washington, George Washington as thanks for the American revolution inspiring the French revolution. He, I'm afraid, was a bit premature and optimistic. The same thing happened with mivvicks coming to power, same thing happened in Iran with the liberals ruling for a few months. And then, sadly, in all three of those cases, came act three. And act three is often particularly horrible when there has been bad oppression for a long time, and the only groups that have cohesion and can operate successfully, are those that are extremely dictatorial. So, what happens? The reign of terror. Overthrows the reformers in France. The -- in Russia, the Bolsheviks kill the others. In Iran those brave people who made the Iranian revolution in early 79, got rid of the Shah found themselves within a year, ruled by theocratic fanatics. We don't know yet, country by country, whether or not the Middle East, some of it will stop at act two, as happily the American revolution did. Or whether it will go on to a terrible act three. I'll offer one thought which may be somewhat surprising as to how I think we can limit the number of totalitarian act threes. And that that is to get off oil. [ Applause ] Paul Collier who heads the African studies institute at oxford, originated I think the phrase, oil curse because he says, any commodity that has a huge amount of economic rent associated with it and believe me, if you are a Saudi, and you are lifting oil for three dollars a barrel and selling it for 100, you get a lot of economic rent. And in an autocratic or totalitarian society, monarchy or dictatorship it doesn't matter when that happens, that economic rent accrues to the control of the elites. The elites that run the country. And it helps them perpetuate themselves so there are 20 countries, for whom oil and gas is 60% or more of the national income. Every last one of them is a dictatorship or an autocratic kingdom. The ten largest oil exporting countries in the world, nine of them are dictatorships, are autocratic kingdom. This we are not helping ourselves, the climate we're not helping anything but staying on oil and I'm not justing about foreign oil, I'm talking about oil, period. [ Applause ] James Woolsey I don't think you would be happy know that His Holiness is appreciative of your remarks and he maybe learned something from you today. Professor Manji, you you have made it your mission to raise the possibilities that we imagine ourselves as moral as he can with be. You have focused on this. When you look at this and you hear Mr. Woolsey talk about, essentially an immoral motivation, a motivation that creates something that causes suffering, and you have heard from each one of these speakers talk about the hopes of democracy, and yet, the realities of violence to make that democracy, those democracies happen. What is your perspective on how we find the right thing to do? How can we contribute to finding the right thing to do? >> You know, Ann, I have traveled the world over the past decade engaging with both Muslims and non-muslims mostly young people, and from what I hear, from them, what we need to do is recognize questioning as a basic human right. Let me try to explain with a quick story. In 2006 I was in Cairo so -- excuse me six years ago now, and I was observing what were then the biggest demonstrations against the mubarak regime. And afterwards, I hung out with a bunch of democracy activists at a cafe one a young woman in her 20s approached me to say, I know that you get a lot of questions from young people, so let me add mine: She said, here is the thing, I have fall in this -- fallen in love with a Jewish man. How do I tell my parents? And then she said something blew me away. The crazy thing is, here I am, putting my life on the line, to try to achieve political change in my own country, but the scarier prospect for me, is to speak with my own family about love. And in that moment, I was reminded and I learned that democracy isn't just about the politics we read about in the headlines. Democracy surely must also be about being allowed to marry the person that you love. Isn't democracy also about being permitted to listen to the music that frankly makes me dance? Isn't democracy also about being able to tap into my real talent, regardless of the labels brought on by religion and culture and gender, and sexuality. -gender and sexuality. These questions are percolating in the Middle East and Africa but they are also universal. And, what I have learned from young people is that they are universal these questions because, the very act of asking questions, of having curiosity, is a natural human need. Just one other story if I may, very briefly: Not long ago, I heard from a young man, a self described student of Sharia law who attends one of the top-notch universitys in the Arab world. And he wrote, we can't use our critical thinking skills in this institution. We can't ask about whether it is mandatory or voluntary for women to wear hijab, the scarf. We are not allowed to discuss how we relate or don't relate to Jews. Or the mistreatment of women. All of this is off limits. He added, I will become, I intend, that's how he put it, I intend to become a reformist imman, meaning prayer leader and intend also, Irshad, he said, to question, prejudices against gays and lesbians. You can see how questions really can bring us all together. But to get there, we have got to recognize questioning as a basic right. It is the soul's way of saying, I'm ready to grow. That is democracy on the rise. [ Applause ] >> His Holiness, I know you would agree that you have heard some, we've all heard some wonderful perspectives this morning. And I can tell you, something that you already know, that so many young people believe that the future is, well, in jeopardy because of all of this anger and war. That people feel as if we're heading in the wrong direction, in terms of peace. What is the truth about the direction that we're heading, and what is your reaction to what you have heard this morning that could give us some perspective on what is to come? >> Your Holiness. >> I participate in a seminar or discussion, I always learn very useful information or views. So here also. I learned useful things. Thank you. That is my favorite subject. I born in 1935. Just beginning of the second world war, just started, potential, growing. Then Korean war, Vietnam war, and so many others. So within my lifetime, it seems quite clear, number one, I think considerable war in early part of the 20th century when certain nations declare war on their enemy. I think every citizen of the country without any questions, even proudly join the effort, military effort, war effort, I think that kind of sort of attitude I think completely changed. After Vietnam war, people always as you mentioned, always raise questions, why? Nowadays, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq in this case also you see, people are asking why? Then another thing. Conservative government. When I was young, nobody talk about environment, importance of the environment. Later in the 20th century, they say, many people nowadays including leaders, they have to think, they have to sort of of say,, start taking care of the environment. Then I think in principle, the concept of non-violence also increasing. Perhaps I think in early 20th century, perhaps I think some people consider Gandhi's non-violence method, some people may feel that is the passive, sign of weakness. Nowadays, I think since I think back nelson mandela, non-violence, actually, because of the implement in political freedom, it was successful. So I think that the concept of non-violence also now much stronger. Then, another thing, in the past, science and faith simply something two different sort of approach. Now I think the quantum physics of these give us new sort of look, or the mind also some very important element, an important role. And then, many scientists now begin to feel, peace of mind is very important factor for good health. So some scientists say, healthy physical, healthy body, and a healthy mind very close. So even some scientists genuine, respected, knowledgeable scientists, they talk more about mind. Importance of mind. So within my lifetime, there are sort of signs, progress, certain things which now today, reality, I think in early part of the 20th century, I know I'm dreaming that. So these not come from religious sort of teachings, but through our own experience, I think humanity in 20th century I think a lot of suffering, a lot of of violence. So through that way, people gain more experience, violence never solves problems. Only way to solve problems is through talk, dialogue. So again, as I mentioned earlier, respite others, even your enemy, brothers and sisters, they also have right to achieve their happiness, their goal. So here we have to sort of of develop concept of, the entire 7 human beings, one family. So the concept of real is part of we. Too much emphasis due to religious faith, due to national interest or some other things, create strong sort of concept of we and they. To that way, even within family, make the distinction, between husband and wife or parent and children, we, I, they. Then greater develop sort of a jealous, a jealous brings distrust. Distrust brings frustration. Frustrations eventually develop violence. So respect others, as a human being, they also need happy life. We have to sort of share something to them. So others happiness is one's happiness. Other's suffering is also one's own suffering. So here I think that, in the education field, I think in ancient times, I think we Tibetans, remain behind the Himalayan mountains, don't care what happened the other side. [ Laughter ] I think perhaps American also I think. What happened in Europe, okay, it doesn't matter, like that. Now that reality completely changed now. Something happens there, it has an effect there. So that clearly shows oneness of humanity. So you have to take care of well-being of others, physically, but reality, part of us. So I think that in education, we need, this is -- not much effect, but in education, sort of system, I think we should introduce some lesson, oneness of humanity. And any problem within that have to solve through talk. So that kind of concept that kind of real thinking should be part of the children's mind. Through that way, next generation, of course, my life will not see, but these young people, I tell people, maybe too long. >> You can go as long as you want. I don't think that anyone is going to -- [ Laughter ] I'm not interrupting you. >> So I tell those young people, I think most of us here I usually call our generation , belongs to 20th century. You, you maybe in the 21st century, you maybe. Any way those people who are of age below 20, these people generation of 21st century. My age, 77, 77 years old, so I belong 20th century. That century is gone. So like me, they need to say bye-bye. [ Laughter ] So these young generation, you belong in the 21st century, so 21st century, the only-almost 11 years, 12 years past. 80 years yet to come. So past is past. We can learn about past from past, some experience. Otherwise, nothing can be done. Now, future years to come, so the future depends on the present. So this generation, younger generation, you can make this century be much peaceful, prosperity, prosperity, and harmonious. So therefore, I think that according to, judging the past century, I think this sort of -- plenty of reasons to be hopeful. So now with that hope, you should have vision. This 21st century, what kind of century should it be? So that will not come, I think last year, in Hiroshima, you also there, peace will not come from sky. Or peace will not develop, not materialize through only prayer. Like this. And peace, peace, peace. It will not come. [ Laughter ] Peace must come through our actions. So, better world, entirely depends on your own action. In order to carry action, the action should be realistic action in order to carry realistic, because action, you should have firm knowledge about the reality, so as you mentioned, you need a lot of questions. Some people say, even government say, you should ask, you should develop remain skeptical attitude. Question, question, question. Through that way, you will find the real picture of the reality. Through one dimension. You can't see the reality. You must look at the reality, the fat from various angles. The facts from various angles. That means holistic view. Then, you get more sort of clearer picture about reality. Then your approach will be more realistic approach. So, you should pay more attention, more questions, and through that way, try to see the reality fully. Then no matter how difficult it is, how obstacles, determination willpower is very, very essential. Willpower comes from more compassionate heart. Some scientists say, those people who tell lies inside much more stress. Honestly, truthfully, they have nothing to hide here. Then you can carry your life transparent, through that way, you gain more self confidence. More inner strength and then, you can implement your action tirelessly. So that, perhaps I think, you should not say oh, of course, they'll never say that don't say that. Think more. Investigate by yourself more. That I think is very important. Okay. >> Okay. [ Applause ] >> So we have a number of questions from our audience both here in Syracuse and also from people all over the world who are watching via webcast. Your Holiness you answered a lot of them in your talk just now but there is a question from Amanda claypool, a Syracuse University student who asked the question, video Twitter. We as a humanity keep pursuing this quest for peace. What comes after peace? And this is to anyone who would like to answer it. Perhaps we'll start with you, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei. >> I would like to follow up on his Holiness that we need to have our feet on the ground and we need to learn from experience. You know. But -- and we last year we discussed in Hiroshima that you cannot have peace by just talking about peace. But actually acting for peace. And what you need to do is change the environment and it is clearly, that I think is -- you cannot really talk about peace when we still have 11,000 nuclear WARHEADs. You know, when we still continue to rely in our security on who has the biggest club. That not going to get us peace. You cannot talk about peace when we know that three billion people, just about half of our humanity, live under two and a half dollars a day. It is not that we cannot change that, but are we willing to do that, to change that. We spend one and a half trillion dollars on armament every year. Half percent on peacekeeping. Do we talk to each other? You know. I mean, we have a couple of major, three major issues that Iranian situation, the Korean situation, the Palestinian situation that we talk to each other. Do we have a dialogue? So we understand where we are coming from. So I would argue, I would tell the young people that it is not just we talk about peace and the aftermath of peace, I mean, we still have a long way to go for peace and peace is a quantum. You know, it is not a question that we, it is like democracy. You don't have a perfect democracy. You continue to refine what you mean by democracy. You know, you continue to learn from your past experience. How you would be free and how you have a cohesive society. But, you need to do a lot of change of mindset before we frankly can talk about peace. You know, are we taking social responsibility? Are we consider our self each one of us responsible for the war in Iraq, for Afghanistan, for the stereotyping of different people. I mean, there's a lot that we can do as civil society. And I think that frankly, peace is too important to be left to government. You know. We need to work on it as human beings. [ Applause ] >> It seems as though you are embracing His Holiness's idea that peace is something that each one of us and that effort toward making it happen is something that is important that each one of us finds a way to contribute to. That seems to be what you're saying here. So if I might ask you, Jim woolsey, what can ordinary Americans do to promote peace and democracy Globally? >> Well, there's a bumper sticker you see from time to time if you want peace, work for justice. And I think there is some real truth in that. If you look at the work of the American writer and political scientist Morton Halprin who is just cut to the chase no, he's not in the okon, he would generally be regarded as a man on the left side of the political spectrum, he and three colleagues have written a wonderful book on democracy that is about two or three years old now. And it runs through the numbers on what happens when a country moves toward democracy and the rule of law. Stipulate democracies aren't perfect. They mess up all the time but generally speaking, your chance of having famines, of having revolutions, of having terrorism, are much below. The chances in dictatorial or autocratic governments by factor of two or three or four. So, it is not a sure bet, nothing in this life is. But at the same time, one is envisioning what all of us have to think and do as individuals, one also I think has to look at the institutional arrangements which take place. The world is gone, I used to be chairman of the board of freedom house and I tracked these numbers more closely than I have the last two or three years, but roughly speaking, the world has gone from 20 democrats or so in 1945, to well over 100 today. Now, they are not perfect. Some of them came about very surprisingly like, for example, Mongolia's tribal structure worked beautifully with its move to democracy immediately after the cold war was over. There are a lot of ways to get there. But when you have these democratic institutions or rule of law, decency, fairness and above all I might say, decent treatment of women, there is no clearer indicator of a totalitarianism society as far as I'm concerned such as Saudi Arabia, and today's Iran, than their brutal treatment of women. [ Applause ] So in the midst of our own personal conduct, and our relations with others, and the wonderful approach toward this, that His Holiness and Mohamed ElBaradei and others have said, that bumper sticker if you want peace, work for justice, is a very good one. [ Applause ] Mr. Young, you wanted to add something briefly? >> Yes. I like to break it down as simple as possible, and the human body is 70% water. And if everybody had water, that is justice. And that's the simplist justice and that kind of justice is available. And if we took one percent of the money we have spent on destroying things, and just provided clean water, I have often thought although it is not as simple now as it was, but a simple pipeline from the head waters of the nile, that would irrigate Gaza and the west bank, and not really take much from Cairo. There is water under the earth, almost everywhere. We also have the capacity to desalinate, and if we had as an objective that everybody should be able to have clean, fresh water, that would wipe out about 45 or 50 diseases. And peace for the wealthy is security. Peace for the poorest of the poor, is bread, and water. [ Applause ] >> Our time is becoming shorter. I know Ms. Shirin Ebadi you would like to make a quick comment. Go ahead. >> ? Order to respond to this question properly, we first have to see what we mean by peace. I don't believe that peace is absent of war, this means that if a country is not in war, it doesn't mean that it is necessarily at peace. Is there a difference between us being thrown out of our homes by the enemy who attacks us, and by being thrown out of our homes by the banks because of our inability to pay our mortgage payments. [ Applause ] Again does it make a difference if we're caught by the enemy, and taken in, or if we're taken in because of having written an article and we have to spend years in prison. We see that all of these are bad. I think that according to my vision, peace is a package of a condition where human beings can live with dignity, and freedom. And this is why at the beginning of my talk, I said, that peace is sustainable only where there is social justice, and democracy. The talk in here was that countries that have oil are being run by dictators. Although I accept this word but I have to state here that Norway has more oil than Iran, for example, but it is a democracy. Countries become non-democratic when their revenues did not come from the taxpayers' taxes but come from the revenues of national resources that are in their hands. In Norway, they save the oil revenue for the future generation. They have done this for over 25 years. They think that the oil revenue belongs to the future generation. Their revenue comes from taxpayers' money. In Iran, 85% of the oil revenue of the government comes from oil. And the government, therefore, has become a big cartel, has become a big employer or recruiter. In Iran, the government pays everyone, basically, and they do have mercenaries and this is why when something happens and people object, if people take on to the streets, the mercenaries will get on the street, and start beating people up. In Iran we have two kinds of police: One is a police which is dressed in police clothing, and the other is the government mercenaries who are paid by the government. The oil revenues being in the hands of the government in general has resulted in the changing of the situation in the Middle East. During the last year over $6 billion of the oil revenue has been sent to Syria as an aid, and the Iranian soldiers are there fighting the people of Syria. In Iran the government is not accountable to the people or to the Parliament because they have all of the revenue and they have the budget in their hands. Therefore, oil does not necessarily result in totalitarianism, however, if it is the revenue of the government, that comes only from the national resources, that can happen in dictatorships. I live in the Middle East and for over 45 years, I have been active in human rights issues. And I can say that if Iran becomes democratic, that would impact the whole area. >> All right, good point to make. [ Applause ] So we are now out of time, so let me just, however, ask you your Holiness for a one word answer. [ Laughter ] To Amanda's question which we never answered, she said, Amanda claypool of Syracuse University student has asked video Twitter, what comes after peace? >> Firstly, -- [ Laughter ] >> What is peace? Peace just absence of violence is not peace. Peace must be, this is something positive, not indifferent. So therefore, I always believe and also telling people, genuine peace must come through inner peace. As I mentioned earlier, taking care of others. That's the seed of peace. So that peace as I mentioned earlier, peace genuine peace, genuine lasting peace is through inner peace. So as soon as inner peace there, your health improves. You get more friends. [ Laughter ] You get more genuine smile. So your life becomes much more happier. Okay. I think I'm not telling you, the experience of older people, of course I have to learn from you. But those young people, perhaps I may tell you, look at my own body, 77 years old person. And life passing through difficult sort of life. TURBULENCE of life. Each at age 16 I lost my freedom. Age 24, I lost my own country. A lot of problems, a lot of sort of disturbances of life and inside Tibet also a lot of problems. However, my physical condition quite okay. That -- of course I take care as I just mentioned, some physical exercise, these things. You do more swimming. I never swim. I never learned to swim. But any? Way, I feel, you see, the main factor for good health, is peace of mind. So therefore, that's essential for peace. Clear. You love smiles, you love friends. Do you prefer more friends or enemies? Anyone who really feels I need more enemy, anyone? I don't think. How to clear friend, through anger, money alone, through power. No. Through warm heartedness you get more friends. More trusted friends. That happens with inner peace. So I think that peace of mind, is very much linked with peace of world. World peace. Peaceful family. More warm heartedness there. Each other. Mutual respect, mutual love. That love also not just, but love with wisdom. That kind of there, the family happier, individuals healthier, happier, community happier. That's the way to build world peace. Not through order, but through individual effort, so as you mentioned, each of us, you see, have this responsibility, and also we have potential. After all, change humanity, we start, that work, that effort must start from individuals. So that I believe. Thank you. [ Laughter ] [ Applause ] >> Sorry. >> So, I was just -- >> Sorry, not one word. [ Laughter ] >> Well, actually I'm grateful because I was just told that while I was told to hurry I'm now told that we have a little extra time. So let me ask you this question: If hate comes of fear, and causes violence as a contributor to violence, how can we be less afraid so that we can have the inner peace that you say will lead to greater world peace? >> I think fear, some fear with reason. Mad dog come, fear. That's good. [ Laughter ] You have to prepare. Protect yourself. Right. If necessary, run away. [ Laughter ] And if necessary, prepare one stone, ready to defend yourself. But many other fears, actually your own mental suspicion. Or jealous. Jealous. So once you have more as I already mentioned, you see, inner peace, with inner peace, more inner strength, self confidence. That that automatically reduces fear. And also you stand firmly on principle, moral principle, if something, if someone -- then there is sort of real possibility that you develop compassion about that person. You stand honesty with principle and truthful, transparent, so you have full confidence. So even someone you see creates some problems, in sort of anger, in frustration, you may develop feeling of sense of concern. Oh, how foolish that person. So more anger, is essentially self destruction. More fear, more destruction, is self destruction. So that's my view. >> One self for anger, one is the same thing that helps contribute perhaps to inner peace, and that's music. I hope you like music, your Holiness, because, we're now going to hear a group that's been inspired by the Arab spring. They are northern as the Ambassadors of love. Please welcome, Teal One97. I'll welcome them as soon as the equipment is out. Hello, welcome. Come on in. I'm participating now in equipment remove a anything else? No, okay. All right. . Hello, everybody. How are you? >> It is that kind of party. It is that kind of party. Well, good morning first of all. While we're waiting I want to thank everyone on behalf of ourselves, Teal One97,. We like to thank Syracuse University, and actually first and foremost Mr. Sam Nappi and one world harmony productions and of course, his Holiness, the Dalai Lama. For having us here. >> Well, whether you're from Palestine, whether you're from Tunisia. >> Or Morocco. >> Iraq. >> Or the U.S. >> Uzbekistan. >> from all over the world. >> United States. >> All of us together, make Teal One97, we all make one world. [ Applause ] There is a day on the horizon for you and me. There is a new star for all to see. Yes it's a new day for you and me. Yes it's a new day for you and me. >> I have found my wounds today (music). (music). [ Applause ] >> Thank you. >> Thank you so much to Teal One97. >> Thank you. Thank you so much and now it is time to simply thank you, thank for being here. Thank all of our panelists for their wonderful perspectives. It has been valuable to listen to you. Thank you, His Holiness, for your wisdom, and for your presence. And as I speak and you put on your shoes, I will simply say thank you also to everyone watching here and also via webcast all over the world, and hopefully, there has been something that has been gained here in your knowledge about the importance of working for justice as these people in the panel have done. And how that contributes to peace. The peace, the time that we all wish for. We all have inner peace. Thank you very much for being here. [ Applause ]